Appendix School Education



Appendix I
Questions for the Use of Readers1

  1.  In what points are there better relations between children and their elders than there were a generation or two ago?
  2. Characterise the elder generation of parents.
  3. What of 'ill-guided' homes?
  4. Give an example of martinet rule. Name some notable men who grew up under such rule.
  5. Compare the arbitrary parent now with the arbitrary parent of the past.
  6. Was arbitrary rule a failure?
  7. What thought should encourage our own efforts?
  8. Show that arbitrariness arose from limitations.
  9. That it is one cause of the reticence of children.
  10.  In what way has the direction of philosophic thought altered the relations of parents and children?
  11. What effect has the doctrine of the 'Infallible Reason' upon authority?
  12. Show that English thought again proclaims the apotheosis of Reason.
  13. What is the final justification of the idea of authority?
  14. Why is the enthronement of the human reason the dethronement of the highest authority?
  15. Show that the spread of an idea is 'quick as thought.'
  16. Why has the notion of the finality of human reason become intolerable?
  17. On what grounds would you say that authority and docility are fundamental principles?
  18. Show that self-interest does not account for the response of docility to authority.
  19. Show that the work of the rationalistic philosophers was necessary.
  20. Show that they hold a brief for human freedom.
  21. Describe the way in which the education of the world seems to be carried on.
  22. Show the danger of the notion that authority is vested in persons.
  23. Show that a person in authority is under authority.
  1. Show, by example, that it is easy to go wrong on principle.
  2. Distinguish between authority and autocracy.
  3. How does autocracy behave?
  4. Show that it is the autocrat who remits duties and grants indulgences.
  5. How does authority behave?
  6. Give half-a-dozen features by which we may distinguish the rule of authority.
  7. What are the qualities proper to a ruler?
  8. Distinguish between mechanical and reasonable obedience.
  9. Show the use of the former.
  10. Show how acts of mechanical obedience help a child to the masterly use of his body.
  11. How is the man, who can make himself do what he wills, trained?
  12. Why is the effort of decision the greatest effort of life?
  13. Show how habit spares us much of this labour.
  14. Show how the habit of obedience eases the lives of children.
  15. How does authority avoid cause of offence?
  16. Show that alert authority in the home is a preventive force.
  17. Show how important the changing of the thoughts, diverting, is in the formation of habit.
  18. Show that children, too, exercise authority.
  19. What question might parents put to themselves daily as an aid to the maintenance of authority?
  1. Contrast our sense of responsibility with that held in the fifties and sixties.
  2. Show that the change in our point of view indicates moral progress.
  3. What kind of responsibility presses heavily at present upon thoughtful people?
  4. Show that anxiety is the note of a transition stage.
  5. Why does a sense of responsibility produce a fussy and restless habit?
  6. Why should we do well to admit the idea of 'masterly inactivity' as a factor in education?
  7. What four or five ideas are contained in this of 'masterly inactivity'?
  8. What is Wordsworth's phrase?
  9. What is the first element in this attitude of mind?
  10. Show that good-humour is the second element.
  11. That self-confidence also is necessary.
  12. What may mothers learn from the fine, easy, way of some fathers?
  13. Show that confidence in children, also, is an element of 'masterly inactivity.'
  14. Why must parents and teachers be omniscient?
  15. Show why 'masterly inactivity' is necessary to the bringing up of a child whose life is conditioned by 'fate and free-will.'
  16. What delicate poise between fate and free-will is to be aimed at for the child?
  17. Show the importance of a sound mind in a sound body to the parent.
  18. What may we learn from the quality which all the early painters have bestowed upon the pattern Mother?
  19. Give one or two practical hints for tired mothers.
  20. Why is leisure necessary to children's well-being?
  21. What is the foundation of the 'masterly inactivity' we have in view?
  1. Why should children be free in their play?
  2. In what respect are organised games not play?
  3. Why should we beware of interfering with children's work?
  4. Show that children must stand or fall by their own efforts.
  5. Show the danger of a system of prodding.
  6. How far may we count upon the dutifulness of boys and girls?
  7. How far should children be free to choose their friends?
  8. To spend their pocket-money?
  9. To form their opinions?
  10. Show that spontaneity is not an indigenous wildflower.
  1. Characterise the educational thought of the eighteenth century.
  2. Show that we, too, have had a period of certainty.
  3. Account for the general dissatisfaction we labour under now.
  4. By what tests may we discern a working psychology for our own age?
  5. Illustrate the fact that the sacredness of the person is among the living thoughts of the age upon which we are being brought up.
  6. On what grounds do we demand of education that it should make the most of the person?
  7. How is 'the solidarity of the race' to be reckoned with in education?
  8. Show that the best thought of any age is common thought.
  9. Discuss Locke's States of Consciousness.
  10. Show that this theory does not provide for the evolution of the person.
  11. How does modern physiological psychology compare with Locke's theory?
  12. How does Professor James define this psychology?
  13. Show that this definition makes the production of thought, etc., purely mechanical.
  14. How far is this assumption 'unjustifiable materialism'?
  15. What is Professor James' pronouncement about what is called the 'new psychology'?
  16. Illustrate the fact that a psychology which eliminates personality is dreary and devitalising.
  17. By what signs may we recognise the fact when the 'new psychology' becomes part of our faith?
  18. Show that this system is inadequate, unnecessary, and inharmonious.
  19. At what point does it check the evolution of the individual?
  1. What do we owe to the Schools of Pestalozzi and Froebel?
  2. What is the source of weakness in their conceptions?
  3. Compare 'make children happy and they will be good' with 'be good and you will be happy.'
  4. Show the fundamental error of regarding man merely as part of the Cosmos.
  5. Show that the struggle for existence is a part of life even to a child.
  6. That any sort of transition violates the principles of unity and continuity.
  7. Why is the Herbartian theory tempting?
  8. Show that this theory treats the person as an effect and not a cause.
  9. Show that the functions of education are overrated by it.
  10. Show that this system of psychology is not in harmony with current thought in three particulars.
  11. Show that educational truth is a common possession.
  12. What are the characteristics of a child who is being adequately educated?
  13. What, roughly speaking, is expressed in the word person?
  14. Show how a person is like Wordsworth's 'cloud.'
  15. Describe an adequate doctrine of education.
  16. Show how it is in touch with the three great ideas which are now moving in men's minds.
  17. What would you say of personal influence in education?
  18. What is implied in saying, Education is the science of relations?
  19. Why must teaching not be obtrusive?
  20. What attitude on the teacher's part arises from the recognition of a child as a person?
  1. Give, roughly, a definition of a human being.
  2. What would you say of his capacities?
  3. What of his limitations?
  4. What are the two functions of a human being under education?
  5. Upon what physical process does education depend?
  6. What do we know, or guess, of the behaviour of ideas?
  7. What appears to be the law of the generation of ideas?
  8. Why do different ideas appeal to different minds? Illustrate by a figure.
  9. Have we any reason for believing that an idea is able to make an impression upon matter?
  10. Mention some of the reflex actions by which we respond to an idea which strikes us.
  11. How does spirit correspond with spirit, human or divine?
  12. Is a child born equipped with ideas?
  13. What is the field open to the educationalist?
  14. What may we learn from the fairly well accredited story of the 'Child of Nuremberg'?
  15. What does nature, unassisted, do for a child?
  16. Show that the normal child has every power that will serve him.
  17. In how far does fulness of living depend on the establishment of relations?
  18. Show that in our common way of treating science, for instance, we maim a natural affinity.
  19. Why should a child be taught to recognise the natural things about him?
  20. How may he be helped to appreciate beauty?
  21. Why should he begin with a first-hand knowledge of science?
  22. Show that appreciation and exact knowledge each has its season.
  1. How long would you give a child to initiate the range of relationships proper to him?
  2. What dynamic relations should he have?
  3. What power over material?
  4. Show that he should have intimacy with animals.
  5. What range of studies belong to the human relationships?
  6. Give example of the awakening idea and its outcome.
  7. Show that intelligence is limited by interests.
  8. What should be the effect if children were fully realised persons?
  9. What effect has the psychology of the hour had upon the sense of duty?
  10. Show that children used to get a fairly sound ethical training.
  11. What is the case now?
  12. Show that 'my duty towards my neighbour' is the only sound basis for moral relations.
  13. Does the sense of what is due from us come by nature?
  14. Why should a child be taught something of self-management?
  15. Why should children have intimacy with persons of all classes?
  16. How may their fitness as citizens be promoted?
  17. What are the three great groups of relations a child has to establish?
  18. Which is the most important of these?
  19. Show that religious sentiments or emotions do not fulfil 'duty towards God.'
  20. Distinguish between sentiment and duty.
  1. Illustrate the fact that Herbartian thought has more influence than any other on the Continent.
  2. Show that we, like Herbart, discard the 'faculties.'
  3. What does Herbart say of the pervasiveness of dominant ideas?
  4. In what ways do we, too, recognise the influence of the Zeitgeist?
  5. How does Herbart enumerate the child's schoolmasters?
  6. Show that we are one with him in realising the place of the family.
  7. What does Herbart say of the child in the family?
  8. Show that we, too, hold that all education springs from and rests upon our relation to Almighty God.
  9. Why should we not divide education into religious and secular?
  10. What doctrine of the medieval Church do we hold with regard to 'secular subjects '?
  11. Upon what, according to Herbart, does the welfare, civilisation, and culture of a people depend?
  12. Discuss the vast uncertainty that exists as to the purpose of education.
  13. Shall we follow Rousseau, Basedow, Locke, Pestalozzi, Froebel, in our attempts to fix the purpose of education?
  14. Show, according to Dr Rein, why not, in each case?
  15. Show that Herbart's theory is ethical, as is ours.
  16. Quote this author on the obscurity of psychology.
  17. But we have two luminous principles. What are they?
  18. What is probably the root defect of the educational philosophy of this great thinker?
  1. Why does not our physical culture tend to make heroes?
  2. What is the end of physical culture?
  3. Show that this implies the idea of vocation.
  4. What principle should check excess, whether in labour or pleasure?
  5. Should parents bring up their children with rigour? Why not?
  6. Write a short theme on each of the points suggested for consideration.
  7. Show how large a part habit plays in physical training.
  8. Prove that self-restraint is a habit.
  9. Show the evil of the excessive exercises that lead to indulgence.
  10. How may self-control in emergencies become a trained habit?
  11. What have you to say of the physical signs of mental states?
  12. Show that discipline must become self-discipline.
  13. What is the part of parents in the holidays as regards school discipline?
  14. How do 'local habits' point to the necessity for self-discipline in even a young child?
  15. Show how alertness must be trained as a physical habit.
  16. That 'quick perception' is less a gift than a habit.
  17. Write short themes on each of the subjects here suggested for consideration.
  18. Show the value of inspiring ideas in initiating habits.
  19. How could you use the idea of 'fortitude' in education?
  20. Of 'service'?
  21. Of 'courage'?
  22. Of 'prudence' as concerned with the duty of health?
  23. What is the highest impulse towards chastity we can have?
  24. Write short themes on the subjects suggested.
  1. Show that we are somewhat law-abiding in matters physical and moral.
  2. That we are not so in matters intellectual.
  3. What are the three ultimate facts which are not open to question?
  4. Show that one or other of the three is always matter of debate.
  5. What three fixed points of thought do we attain when we realise that God is, self is, and the world is?
  6. Why is it necessary to recognise the limitations of reason?
  7. Describe the involuntary action of reason.
  8. Show, by examples, (a) what the function of reason is, and (b) what the function of reason is not.
  9. Show, by examples, that wars, persecutions, and family feuds are due to the notion that, what reason demonstrates is right and true.
  10. Why should a child be taught the limitations of his own reason?
  11. What mistake is commonly made regarding intellect and knowledge?
  12. Show that the world is educated by knowledge given 'in repasts.'
  13. How would you characterise our own era as regards the knowledge given to us?
  14. How did the medieval Church recognise the divine origin of knowledge?
  15. Why is nothing so practical as a great idea?
  16. Show the importance of forming intellectual habits.
  17. Show that we trust blindly to disciplinary studies for the formation of such habits.
  18. Name and describe half-a-dozen intellectual habits in which a child should be trained.
  19. Show that progress in the intellectual as in the Christian life depends upon meditation.
  20. Show that a child must have daily sustenance of living ideas. How do we err in this respect?
  21. Make some remarks upon the literature proper for children.
  22. Illustrate the fact that the intellectual development of children is independent.
  23. By what law do children appropriate nourishing ideas?
  24. What, then, is the part of parents and teachers?
  25. What failing on the part of parents is often fatal to growth?
  26. Write a few remarks on each of the subjects suggested in connection with the intellectual life of children.
  27. What was the educational aim of Plato?
  1. What are the three principles which underlie the educational thought proposed in these volumes?
  2. What principle is universally acknowledged as the basis of moral teaching?
  3. How does authority work?
  4. 'A man can but act up to his lights'--discuss this fallacy.
  5. Define the limits of authority.
  6. What is the consequence of arbitrary action?
  7. What old contention as to the sanctions of morality is exercising men now?
  8. Show that Socrates had to contend with the popular doctrine of to-day in other forms.
  9. What is the necessary issue of this teaching?
  10. How should children be taught that duty can exist only as that which we owe to God?
  11. Show that morals do not come by nature.
  12. That a certain rough and ready morality does come by heredity and environment.
  13. How do we get an educated conscience?
  14. Show that children are born neither moral nor immoral.
  15. Show the danger of spasmodic moral efforts.
  16. Where shall we look for the basis of our moral teaching?
  17. What do we owe to the poets in this regard?
  18. How did the medieval Church provide moral object lessons?
  19. Illustrate our failure in this respect.
  20. Why should children have the inspiration of high ideals?
  21. Show the value of biography in this Connection.
  22.  Name any virtues with which the poets inspire us.
  23. Make a suggestion with regard to the culling of mottoes.
  24. How may parents and teachers help children to the habit of sweet thoughts?
  25. Enumerate and discuss some of the virtues which children should be trained to develop.
  26. Distinguish between 'being good' and loving God.
  1. Show how the principle of authority bears on religious teaching.
  2. In what ideas do the children of our day need especially to be brought up?
  3. How do certain questions 'in the air' militate against the sense of authority?
  4. In what respects does authority work like a good and just national government?
  5. Discuss authority in connection with punishment.
  6. Discuss each of the various themes suggested in connection with the subject of authority in the religious life.
  7. Show that lines of habit are as important for the religious as for the physical, moral, and intellectual life.
  8. How would you endeavour to keep a child in the habit of the thought of God?
  9. Discuss the question of reverent attitudes.
  10. How would you use 'because of the angels' in this connection?
  11. Show the importance of regularity in time and place in children's prayers.
  12. Why should not their evening prayers be left till bed-time?
  13. What is to be said of little text-books?
  14. Show the danger of losing the narrative teaching of the Scriptures.
  15. Why should not children be encouraged in long readings or long prayers?
  16. How should the habit of praise be fostered?
  17. Show the value of the habit of Sunday-keeping, and describe a child's Sunday.
  18. Write your reflections on each of the themes suggested in connection with the habits of the religious life.
  19. Show the importance of selecting the inspiring ideas we propose to give children in the things of the Divine life.
  20. What other point demands our care?
  21. What vitalising idea is of first importance in the teaching of children?
  22. How should children be taught that the essence of Christianity is devotion to a Person?
  23. Why is it necessary to teach children that there is a Saviour of the world?
  24. What teaching would you give them about the work of the Holy Spirit?
  1. What is the motto of the Parents' Union?
  2. Show that this motto is a master-thought.
  3. Why is 'education is an atmosphere' the clause of the motto that pleases us most?
  4. What is the result if this part be taken for the whole?
  5. What defect in education leads to ennui and the desire to be amused by shows?
  6. What was the unconscious formula of the eighteenth century?
  7. What was the result of this one-sided view of education?
  8. Show that the idea of the development of the faculties also rests upon a one-sided notion.
  9. What is the tendency of an education grounded upon the development of faculties?
  10. Should it be our aim to produce specialists? Why not?
  11. Show what manner of education results in a sound and well-balanced mind.
  12. Show that the medieval Church understood, better than we, that 'education is a life.'
  13. Sketch the scheme of educational philosophy to be found on the walls of the 'Spanish Chapel' of S. Maria Novella.
  14. Show how this educational creed unifies life.
  15. What does Coleridge say of the origin of great ideas of nature?
  16. What does Michael Angelo write to his friend of the need for a diet of great ideas?
  17. What is the special teaching vouchsafed to men today?
  18. What views are people apt to take with regard to this teaching?
  19. What does Huxley say about ideas in science?
  20. How does the teaching of Simone Memmi and Coleridge relieve us from anxiety and make clear our perplexities?
  21. How does Coleridge describe Botany, as that science existed in his day?
  22. What has evolution, the key-word of our age, done for this and other perplexities?
  23. But what has been the object of pursuit among philosophers for three thousand years?
  24. How did Herakleitos attempt to solve the problem?
  25. How did Demokritos?
  26. Show that some knowledge of history and philosophy should give us pause in using the key of evolution.
  27. Show that personality remains, and is not resolvable by this key.
  28. Why is it necessary for parents and teachers to consider their attitude towards this question?
  29. What are the four attitudes which it is possible to take up?
  30. What gains will the children derive if their teachers adopt the last-mentioned of these?
  31. What two things are incumbent upon us with regard to the great ideas by which the world is being taught?
  32. Show the danger of making too personal a matter of education.
  33. If education is a world-business, show that we must have a guiding idea about it.
  34. What ideas should regulate the curriculum of a boy or girl under fourteen?
  35. Show the importance of good books and many books for the use of children.
  36. Why may we not choose or reject certain 'subjects' arbitrarily?
  1. What ideas do we get from the incident quoted from The Neighbours?
  2. What manner of books sustains the life of thought?
  3. What have you to say of the 'school-books, of the publishers?
  4. Why do intelligent teachers fall back upon oral lessons?
  5. Mention some of the disadvantages of these.
  6. What questions should we ask about a youth who has finished his education?
  7. Wherein lies the error of our educational system?
  8. Show that we undervalue children, and therefore educate them amiss.
  9. What was the note of home-life in the last generation?
  10. How would you describe children as they are?
  11. Show that our great work is to give them vitalising ideas.
  1. What question must we ask concerning a subject of instruction?
  2. What do you understand by disciplinary subjects?
  3. What danger attends the blind use of these?
  4. What idea should prove an 'open sesame' to many vitalising studies?
  5. Illustrate the fact that the Bible is the great source of moral impressions.
  6. What impressions were made on De Quincey by his nursery Bible readings?
  7. In what ways did the liturgy appeal to him?
  8. Why should a child dig for his own knowledge?
  9. What are the uses of the oral lesson and the lecture?
  10. Why should children use living books for themselves?
  11. What is the mark of a fit book?
  12. How shall we know if children enjoy a book?
  13. What should the teacher do towards the teaching by the book?
  14. In what ways must children labour over their books?
  15. What is the simplest way of dealing with a paragraph or chapter?
  16. Why should preparation consist of a single careful reading?
  17. Mention some other ways of using books.
  18. What mechanical devices might children use in their studies?
  19. What does the teacher do towards the preparation of a lesson?
  20. What is the danger of too many disciplinary devices?
  21. Why are we in some danger of neglecting books?
  1. What are our three educational instruments, and why are we confined to these?
  2. Why may we not encroach upon the personality of children?
  3. In what ways may we temper life too much for children?
  4. What example of fairy-lore serving as a screen and shelter does Wordsworth give us in The Prelude?
  5. What have you to say of the spontaneous living of children?
  6. On what does fulness of living depend?
  7. Distinguish between the relation of ideas to ideas and the relation of persons to the ideas proper for them.
  8. Show that the object of education is not to make something of the child, but to put the child in touch with all that concerns him.
  9. Describe the self-education of an infant. What does Wordsworth tell us on this point?
  10. What is our part in his education?
  11. What is our common error; what are its results?
  12. Distinguish between business and desire.
  13. What attempts were made to teach Ruskin to ride, and what does he think of those attempts?
  14. What indictment does he bring against the limitations of his condition?
  15. Why should those parents especially who are villa-dwellers learn much from Præterita?
  16. Enumerate Wordsworth's opportunities for forming dynamic relations.
  17. Show that these came naturally in the course of things.
  1. What chances had Ruskin to learn the use of material?
  2. What do we hear of the intimacy of either boy with natural objects?
  3. Describe Ruskin's flower studies.
  4. His pebble studies.
  5. Show that these became a life-shaping intimacy.
  6. Upon what books did Ruskin grow up?
  7. What is the first mention we get of his insatiate delight in a book?
  8. What qualities in Byron delighted him?
  9. Describe Wordsworth's delight in the Arabian Nights.
  10. What is Wordsworth's plea for 'romance' in education?
  11. What does he say in favour of liberty to range among books?
  12. Describe his first enthralment by poetry.
  13. Show that Ruskin's historic sense appears to be always connected with places.
  14. How does he betray some want of living touch with the past?
  15. Show that Wordsworth, too, was aloof.
  16. Show that the knowledge 'learned in schools' laid little hold of either boy.
  17. Compare the experiences of the two boys with regard to chances of comradeship.
  1. Describe Turner's 'call' to Ruskin.
  2. What does Ruskin consider his first sincere drawing?
  3. What account does he give of his true initiation?
  4. What is the first hint we get of nature as a passion?
  5. How does Wordsworth trace the beginnings of this passion?
  6. Describe the 'calling' of the poet.
  7. How does Wordsworth describe the education of the little prig of his day?
  8. Show that the child prig is the child who is the end and aim of his own education.
  9. Mention a few of the directions in which children have affinities.
  10. Show from the example of Waverley the danger of a desultory education.
  11. How does Mr. Ruskin express that 'the child is father to the man'?
  12. Show that strenuous effort and reverence are conditions of education.
  13. Show that comradeship has its duties.
  14. Why should children have a steady, unruffled course of work?
  15. Describe from Brother Lawrence one way in which the highest relationship may be initiated.
  16. What does Browning say about this relation?
  1. Give a short summary of the preceding chapters.
  2. Comment upon the educational methods of the day.
  3. What two conditions are necessary to any sound reform?
  4. Why do many boys and girls leave school intellectually devitalised?
  5. How does Mr. Benson characterise the aims of Masters of public schools?
  6. How may we characterise the minds of children?
  7. Show the practical working of this view.
  8. Distinguish between knowledge and information.
  9. In what ways will the child show power in dealing with knowledge?
  10. To what do stereotyped phrases and mangled notes in children's work point?
  11. Work out an analogy between knowledge and food.
  12. Why may we call 'mark-hunger' a debauchery of mind?
  13. Why should not epitomes and compilations be allowed for children's use?
  14. What are the advantages of working through a considerable book?
  1. Who must, in the end, decide upon the right school-books?
  2. What are the relative places of lecture and book?
  3. Show the danger of elaborate appliances.
  4. Upon what principle should studies be co-ordinated?
  5. What results of education should we look for in a young person leaving school?
  6. Show that the worth of education by things is now fully recognised.
  7. What habit should we look for as a chief acquirement of school-life?
  8. Give a rough classification of the subjects in which knowledge is due to children.
  9. Show the importance of the Bible as a means of education.
  10. What knowledge of history should boys and girls of twelve to fourteen have?
  11. What mistake is commonly made in teaching this subject?
  12. What knowledge of languages should they have?
  13. What should we aim at in the early teaching of science?
  14. What least amount of time in the open is a sine quâ non of a living education?
  15. What is the use of books in nature-teaching?
  16. Name a few useful books.
  17. What do you understand by 'picture-talks'?
  1. Why does the use of books make for short hours?
  2. What is the evil of a utilitarian education?
  3. Distinguish between relations and interests.
  4. Show that the tendency of present-day education is to depreciate knowledge.
  5. Enumerate some causes of the failure of our efforts at intellectual education.
  6. Show the danger, which besets teachers, of pursuing intellectual futilities.
  7. By what test may we distinguish a fad from an educational method?
  8. Our end is to produce an educated child. How is he to be recognised?
  9. Children delight in school for many reasons. Which of these is the only abiding motive?
  10. What change in our educational methods should secure the children's educational Magna Carta?

1See note at the end of the volume.