Questions for the Use of Readers1
DOCILITY AND AUTHORITY IN THE HOME AND SCHOOL
- In what points are there better relations between children and their elders than there were a generation or two ago?
- Characterise the elder generation of parents.
- What of 'ill-guided' homes?
- Give an example of martinet rule. Name some notable men who grew up under such rule.
- Compare the arbitrary parent now with the arbitrary parent of the past.
- Was arbitrary rule a failure?
- What thought should encourage our own efforts?
- Show that arbitrariness arose from limitations.
- That it is one cause of the reticence of children.
- In what way has the direction of philosophic thought altered the relations of parents and children?
- What effect has the doctrine of the 'Infallible Reason' upon authority?
- Show that English thought again proclaims the apotheosis of Reason.
- What is the final justification of the idea of authority?
- Why is the enthronement of the human reason the dethronement of the highest authority?
- Show that the spread of an idea is 'quick as thought.'
- Why has the notion of the finality of human reason become intolerable?
- On what grounds would you say that authority and docility are fundamental principles?
- Show that self-interest does not account for the response of docility to authority.
- Show that the work of the rationalistic philosophers was necessary.
- Show that they hold a brief for human freedom.
- Describe the way in which the education of the world seems to be carried on.
- Show the danger of the notion that authority is vested in persons.
- Show that a person in authority is under authority.
DOCILITY AND AUTHORITY IN THE HOME AND SCHOOL (Part II––How Authority Behaves)
- Show, by example, that it is easy to go wrong on principle.
- Distinguish between authority and autocracy.
- How does autocracy behave?
- Show that it is the autocrat who remits duties and grants indulgences.
- How does authority behave?
- Give half-a-dozen features by which we may distinguish the rule of authority.
- What are the qualities proper to a ruler?
- Distinguish between mechanical and reasonable obedience.
- Show the use of the former.
- Show how acts of mechanical obedience help a child to the masterly use of his body.
- How is the man, who can make himself do what he wills, trained?
- Why is the effort of decision the greatest effort of life?
- Show how habit spares us much of this labour.
- Show how the habit of obedience eases the lives of children.
- How does authority avoid cause of offence?
- Show that alert authority in the home is a preventive force.
- Show how important the changing of the thoughts, diverting, is in the formation of habit.
- Show that children, too, exercise authority.
- What question might parents put to themselves daily as an aid to the maintenance of authority?
- Contrast our sense of responsibility with that held in the fifties and sixties.
- Show that the change in our point of view indicates moral progress.
- What kind of responsibility presses heavily at present upon thoughtful people?
- Show that anxiety is the note of a transition stage.
- Why does a sense of responsibility produce a fussy and restless habit?
- Why should we do well to admit the idea of 'masterly inactivity' as a factor in education?
- What four or five ideas are contained in this of 'masterly inactivity'?
- What is Wordsworth's phrase?
- What is the first element in this attitude of mind?
- Show that good-humour is the second element.
- That self-confidence also is necessary.
- What may mothers learn from the fine, easy, way of some fathers?
- Show that confidence in children, also, is an element of 'masterly inactivity.'
- Why must parents and teachers be omniscient?
- Show why 'masterly inactivity' is necessary to the bringing up of a child whose life is conditioned by 'fate and free-will.'
- What delicate poise between fate and free-will is to be aimed at for the child?
- Show the importance of a sound mind in a sound body to the parent.
- What may we learn from the quality which all the early painters have bestowed upon the pattern Mother?
- Give one or two practical hints for tired mothers.
- Why is leisure necessary to children's well-being?
- What is the foundation of the 'masterly inactivity' we have in view?
SOME OF THE RIGHTS OF CHILDREN AS PERSONS
- Why should children be free in their play?
- In what respect are organised games not play?
- Why should we beware of interfering with children's work?
- Show that children must stand or fall by their own efforts.
- Show the danger of a system of prodding.
- How far may we count upon the dutifulness of boys and girls?
- How far should children be free to choose their friends?
- To spend their pocket-money?
- To form their opinions?
- Show that spontaneity is not an indigenous wildflower.
PSYCHOLOGY IN RELATION TO CURRENT THOUGHT
- Characterise the educational thought of the eighteenth century.
- Show that we, too, have had a period of certainty.
- Account for the general dissatisfaction we labour under now.
- By what tests may we discern a working psychology for our own age?
- Illustrate the fact that the sacredness of the person is among the living thoughts of the age upon which we are being brought up.
- On what grounds do we demand of education that it should make the most of the person?
- How is 'the solidarity of the race' to be reckoned with in education?
- Show that the best thought of any age is common thought.
- Discuss Locke's States of Consciousness.
- Show that this theory does not provide for the evolution of the person.
- How does modern physiological psychology compare with Locke's theory?
- How does Professor James define this psychology?
- Show that this definition makes the production of thought, etc., purely mechanical.
- How far is this assumption 'unjustifiable materialism'?
- What is Professor James' pronouncement about what is called the 'new psychology'?
- Illustrate the fact that a psychology which eliminates personality is dreary and devitalising.
- By what signs may we recognise the fact when the 'new psychology' becomes part of our faith?
- Show that this system is inadequate, unnecessary, and inharmonious.
- At what point does it check the evolution of the individual?
SOME EDUCATIONAL THEORIES EXAMINED
- What do we owe to the Schools of Pestalozzi and Froebel?
- What is the source of weakness in their conceptions?
- Compare 'make children happy and they will be good' with 'be good and you will be happy.'
- Show the fundamental error of regarding man merely as part of the Cosmos.
- Show that the struggle for existence is a part of life even to a child.
- That any sort of transition violates the principles of unity and continuity.
- Why is the Herbartian theory tempting?
- Show that this theory treats the person as an effect and not a cause.
- Show that the functions of education are overrated by it.
- Show that this system of psychology is not in harmony with current thought in three particulars.
- Show that educational truth is a common possession.
- What are the characteristics of a child who is being adequately educated?
- What, roughly speaking, is expressed in the word person?
- Show how a person is like Wordsworth's 'cloud.'
- Describe an adequate doctrine of education.
- Show how it is in touch with the three great ideas which are now moving in men's minds.
- What would you say of personal influence in education?
- What is implied in saying, Education is the science of relations?
- Why must teaching not be obtrusive?
- What attitude on the teacher's part arises from the recognition of a child as a person?
AN ADEQUATE THEORY OF EDUCATION
- Give, roughly, a definition of a human being.
- What would you say of his capacities?
- What of his limitations?
- What are the two functions of a human being under education?
- Upon what physical process does education depend?
- What do we know, or guess, of the behaviour of ideas?
- What appears to be the law of the generation of ideas?
- Why do different ideas appeal to different minds? Illustrate by a figure.
- Have we any reason for believing that an idea is able to make an impression upon matter?
- Mention some of the reflex actions by which we respond to an idea which strikes us.
- How does spirit correspond with spirit, human or divine?
- Is a child born equipped with ideas?
- What is the field open to the educationalist?
- What may we learn from the fairly well accredited story of the 'Child of Nuremberg'?
- What does nature, unassisted, do for a child?
- Show that the normal child has every power that will serve him.
- In how far does fulness of living depend on the establishment of relations?
- Show that in our common way of treating science, for instance, we maim a natural affinity.
- Why should a child be taught to recognise the natural things about him?
- How may he be helped to appreciate beauty?
- Why should he begin with a first-hand knowledge of science?
- Show that appreciation and exact knowledge each has its season.
CERTAIN RELATIONS PROPER TO A CHILD
- How long would you give a child to initiate the range of relationships proper to him?
- What dynamic relations should he have?
- What power over material?
- Show that he should have intimacy with animals.
- What range of studies belong to the human relationships?
- Give example of the awakening idea and its outcome.
- Show that intelligence is limited by interests.
- What should be the effect if children were fully realised persons?
- What effect has the psychology of the hour had upon the sense of duty?
- Show that children used to get a fairly sound ethical training.
- What is the case now?
- Show that 'my duty towards my neighbour' is the only sound basis for moral relations.
- Does the sense of what is due from us come by nature?
- Why should a child be taught something of self-management?
- Why should children have intimacy with persons of all classes?
- How may their fitness as citizens be promoted?
- What are the three great groups of relations a child has to establish?
- Which is the most important of these?
- Show that religious sentiments or emotions do not fulfil 'duty towards God.'
- Distinguish between sentiment and duty.
A GREAT EDUCATIONALIST
- Illustrate the fact that Herbartian thought has more influence than any other on the Continent.
- Show that we, like Herbart, discard the 'faculties.'
- What does Herbart say of the pervasiveness of dominant ideas?
- In what ways do we, too, recognise the influence of the Zeitgeist?
- How does Herbart enumerate the child's schoolmasters?
- Show that we are one with him in realising the place of the family.
- What does Herbart say of the child in the family?
- Show that we, too, hold that all education springs from and rests upon our relation to Almighty God.
- Why should we not divide education into religious and secular?
- What doctrine of the medieval Church do we hold with regard to 'secular subjects '?
- Upon what, according to Herbart, does the welfare, civilisation, and culture of a people depend?
- Discuss the vast uncertainty that exists as to the purpose of education.
- Shall we follow Rousseau, Basedow, Locke, Pestalozzi, Froebel, in our attempts to fix the purpose of education?
- Show, according to Dr Rein, why not, in each case?
- Show that Herbart's theory is ethical, as is ours.
- Quote this author on the obscurity of psychology.
- But we have two luminous principles. What are they?
- What is probably the root defect of the educational philosophy of this great thinker?
SOME UNCONSIDERED ASPECTS OF PHYSICAL TRAINING
- Why does not our physical culture tend to make heroes?
- What is the end of physical culture?
- Show that this implies the idea of vocation.
- What principle should check excess, whether in labour or pleasure?
- Should parents bring up their children with rigour? Why not?
- Write a short theme on each of the points suggested for consideration.
- Show how large a part habit plays in physical training.
- Prove that self-restraint is a habit.
- Show the evil of the excessive exercises that lead to indulgence.
- How may self-control in emergencies become a trained habit?
- What have you to say of the physical signs of mental states?
- Show that discipline must become self-discipline.
- What is the part of parents in the holidays as regards school discipline?
- How do 'local habits' point to the necessity for self-discipline in even a young child?
- Show how alertness must be trained as a physical habit.
- That 'quick perception' is less a gift than a habit.
- Write short themes on each of the subjects here suggested for consideration.
- Show the value of inspiring ideas in initiating habits.
- How could you use the idea of 'fortitude' in education?
- Of 'service'?
- Of 'courage'?
- Of 'prudence' as concerned with the duty of health?
- What is the highest impulse towards chastity we can have?
- Write short themes on the subjects suggested.
SOME UNCONSIDERED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL TRAINING
- Show that we are somewhat law-abiding in matters physical and moral.
- That we are not so in matters intellectual.
- What are the three ultimate facts which are not open to question?
- Show that one or other of the three is always matter of debate.
- What three fixed points of thought do we attain when we realise that God is, self is, and the world is?
- Why is it necessary to recognise the limitations of reason?
- Describe the involuntary action of reason.
- Show, by examples, (a) what the function of reason is, and (b) what the function of reason is not.
- Show, by examples, that wars, persecutions, and family feuds are due to the notion that, what reason demonstrates is right and true.
- Why should a child be taught the limitations of his own reason?
- What mistake is commonly made regarding intellect and knowledge?
- Show that the world is educated by knowledge given 'in repasts.'
- How would you characterise our own era as regards the knowledge given to us?
- How did the medieval Church recognise the divine origin of knowledge?
- Why is nothing so practical as a great idea?
- Show the importance of forming intellectual habits.
- Show that we trust blindly to disciplinary studies for the formation of such habits.
- Name and describe half-a-dozen intellectual habits in which a child should be trained.
- Show that progress in the intellectual as in the Christian life depends upon meditation.
- Show that a child must have daily sustenance of living ideas. How do we err in this respect?
- Make some remarks upon the literature proper for children.
- Illustrate the fact that the intellectual development of children is independent.
- By what law do children appropriate nourishing ideas?
- What, then, is the part of parents and teachers?
- What failing on the part of parents is often fatal to growth?
- Write a few remarks on each of the subjects suggested in connection with the intellectual life of children.
- What was the educational aim of Plato?
SOME UNCONSIDERED ASPECTS OF MORAL TRAINING
- What are the three principles which underlie the educational thought proposed in these volumes?
- What principle is universally acknowledged as the basis of moral teaching?
- How does authority work?
- 'A man can but act up to his lights'--discuss this fallacy.
- Define the limits of authority.
- What is the consequence of arbitrary action?
- What old contention as to the sanctions of morality is exercising men now?
- Show that Socrates had to contend with the popular doctrine of to-day in other forms.
- What is the necessary issue of this teaching?
- How should children be taught that duty can exist only as that which we owe to God?
- Show that morals do not come by nature.
- That a certain rough and ready morality does come by heredity and environment.
- How do we get an educated conscience?
- Show that children are born neither moral nor immoral.
- Show the danger of spasmodic moral efforts.
- Where shall we look for the basis of our moral teaching?
- What do we owe to the poets in this regard?
- How did the medieval Church provide moral object lessons?
- Illustrate our failure in this respect.
- Why should children have the inspiration of high ideals?
- Show the value of biography in this Connection.
- Name any virtues with which the poets inspire us.
- Make a suggestion with regard to the culling of mottoes.
- How may parents and teachers help children to the habit of sweet thoughts?
- Enumerate and discuss some of the virtues which children should be trained to develop.
- Distinguish between 'being good' and loving God.
SOME UNCONSIDERED ASPECTS OF RELIGIOUS EDUCATION
- Show how the principle of authority bears on religious teaching.
- In what ideas do the children of our day need especially to be brought up?
- How do certain questions 'in the air' militate against the sense of authority?
- In what respects does authority work like a good and just national government?
- Discuss authority in connection with punishment.
- Discuss each of the various themes suggested in connection with the subject of authority in the religious life.
- Show that lines of habit are as important for the religious as for the physical, moral, and intellectual life.
- How would you endeavour to keep a child in the habit of the thought of God?
- Discuss the question of reverent attitudes.
- How would you use 'because of the angels' in this connection?
- Show the importance of regularity in time and place in children's prayers.
- Why should not their evening prayers be left till bed-time?
- What is to be said of little text-books?
- Show the danger of losing the narrative teaching of the Scriptures.
- Why should not children be encouraged in long readings or long prayers?
- How should the habit of praise be fostered?
- Show the value of the habit of Sunday-keeping, and describe a child's Sunday.
- Write your reflections on each of the themes suggested in connection with the habits of the religious life.
- Show the importance of selecting the inspiring ideas we propose to give children in the things of the Divine life.
- What other point demands our care?
- What vitalising idea is of first importance in the teaching of children?
- How should children be taught that the essence of Christianity is devotion to a Person?
- Why is it necessary to teach children that there is a Saviour of the world?
- What teaching would you give them about the work of the Holy Spirit?
- What is the motto of the Parents' Union?
- Show that this motto is a master-thought.
- Why is 'education is an atmosphere' the clause of the motto that pleases us most?
- What is the result if this part be taken for the whole?
- What defect in education leads to ennui and the desire to be amused by shows?
- What was the unconscious formula of the eighteenth century?
- What was the result of this one-sided view of education?
- Show that the idea of the development of the faculties also rests upon a one-sided notion.
- What is the tendency of an education grounded upon the development of faculties?
- Should it be our aim to produce specialists? Why not?
- Show what manner of education results in a sound and well-balanced mind.
- Show that the medieval Church understood, better than we, that 'education is a life.'
- Sketch the scheme of educational philosophy to be found on the walls of the 'Spanish Chapel' of S. Maria Novella.
- Show how this educational creed unifies life.
- What does Coleridge say of the origin of great ideas of nature?
- What does Michael Angelo write to his friend of the need for a diet of great ideas?
- What is the special teaching vouchsafed to men today?
- What views are people apt to take with regard to this teaching?
- What does Huxley say about ideas in science?
- How does the teaching of Simone Memmi and Coleridge relieve us from anxiety and make clear our perplexities?
- How does Coleridge describe Botany, as that science existed in his day?
- What has evolution, the key-word of our age, done for this and other perplexities?
- But what has been the object of pursuit among philosophers for three thousand years?
- How did Herakleitos attempt to solve the problem?
- How did Demokritos?
- Show that some knowledge of history and philosophy should give us pause in using the key of evolution.
- Show that personality remains, and is not resolvable by this key.
- Why is it necessary for parents and teachers to consider their attitude towards this question?
- What are the four attitudes which it is possible to take up?
- What gains will the children derive if their teachers adopt the last-mentioned of these?
- What two things are incumbent upon us with regard to the great ideas by which the world is being taught?
- Show the danger of making too personal a matter of education.
- If education is a world-business, show that we must have a guiding idea about it.
- What ideas should regulate the curriculum of a boy or girl under fourteen?
- Show the importance of good books and many books for the use of children.
- Why may we not choose or reject certain 'subjects' arbitrarily?
SCHOOL-BOOKS, AND HOW THEY MAKE FOR EDUCATION
- What ideas do we get from the incident quoted from The Neighbours?
- What manner of books sustains the life of thought?
- What have you to say of the 'school-books, of the publishers?
- Why do intelligent teachers fall back upon oral lessons?
- Mention some of the disadvantages of these.
- What questions should we ask about a youth who has finished his education?
- Wherein lies the error of our educational system?
- Show that we undervalue children, and therefore educate them amiss.
- What was the note of home-life in the last generation?
- How would you describe children as they are?
- Show that our great work is to give them vitalising ideas.
HOW TO USE SCHOOL-BOOKS
- What question must we ask concerning a subject of instruction?
- What do you understand by disciplinary subjects?
- What danger attends the blind use of these?
- What idea should prove an 'open sesame' to many vitalising studies?
- Illustrate the fact that the Bible is the great source of moral impressions.
- What impressions were made on De Quincey by his nursery Bible readings?
- In what ways did the liturgy appeal to him?
- Why should a child dig for his own knowledge?
- What are the uses of the oral lesson and the lecture?
- Why should children use living books for themselves?
- What is the mark of a fit book?
- How shall we know if children enjoy a book?
- What should the teacher do towards the teaching by the book?
- In what ways must children labour over their books?
- What is the simplest way of dealing with a paragraph or chapter?
- Why should preparation consist of a single careful reading?
- Mention some other ways of using books.
- What mechanical devices might children use in their studies?
- What does the teacher do towards the preparation of a lesson?
- What is the danger of too many disciplinary devices?
- Why are we in some danger of neglecting books?
EDUCATION IS THE SCIENCE OF RELATIONS: WE ARE EDUCATED BY OUR INTIMACIES
- What are our three educational instruments, and why are we confined to these?
- Why may we not encroach upon the personality of children?
- In what ways may we temper life too much for children?
- What example of fairy-lore serving as a screen and shelter does Wordsworth give us in The Prelude?
- What have you to say of the spontaneous living of children?
- On what does fulness of living depend?
- Distinguish between the relation of ideas to ideas and the relation of persons to the ideas proper for them.
- Show that the object of education is not to make something of the child, but to put the child in touch with all that concerns him.
- Describe the self-education of an infant. What does Wordsworth tell us on this point?
- What is our part in his education?
- What is our common error; what are its results?
- Distinguish between business and desire.
- What attempts were made to teach Ruskin to ride, and what does he think of those attempts?
- What indictment does he bring against the limitations of his condition?
- Why should those parents especially who are villa-dwellers learn much from Præterita?
- Enumerate Wordsworth's opportunities for forming dynamic relations.
- Show that these came naturally in the course of things.
WE ARE EDUCATED BY OUR INTIMACIES (Part II––Further Affinities)
- What chances had Ruskin to learn the use of material?
- What do we hear of the intimacy of either boy with natural objects?
- Describe Ruskin's flower studies.
- His pebble studies.
- Show that these became a life-shaping intimacy.
- Upon what books did Ruskin grow up?
- What is the first mention we get of his insatiate delight in a book?
- What qualities in Byron delighted him?
- Describe Wordsworth's delight in the Arabian Nights.
- What is Wordsworth's plea for 'romance' in education?
- What does he say in favour of liberty to range among books?
- Describe his first enthralment by poetry.
- Show that Ruskin's historic sense appears to be always connected with places.
- How does he betray some want of living touch with the past?
- Show that Wordsworth, too, was aloof.
- Show that the knowledge 'learned in schools' laid little hold of either boy.
- Compare the experiences of the two boys with regard to chances of comradeship.
WE ARE EDUCATED BY OUR INTIMACIES (Part III––Vocation)
- Describe Turner's 'call' to Ruskin.
- What does Ruskin consider his first sincere drawing?
- What account does he give of his true initiation?
- What is the first hint we get of nature as a passion?
- How does Wordsworth trace the beginnings of this passion?
- Describe the 'calling' of the poet.
- How does Wordsworth describe the education of the little prig of his day?
- Show that the child prig is the child who is the end and aim of his own education.
- Mention a few of the directions in which children have affinities.
- Show from the example of Waverley the danger of a desultory education.
- How does Mr. Ruskin express that 'the child is father to the man'?
- Show that strenuous effort and reverence are conditions of education.
- Show that comradeship has its duties.
- Why should children have a steady, unruffled course of work?
- Describe from Brother Lawrence one way in which the highest relationship may be initiated.
- What does Browning say about this relation?
SUGGESTIONS TOWARDS A CURRICULUM
- Give a short summary of the preceding chapters.
- Comment upon the educational methods of the day.
- What two conditions are necessary to any sound reform?
- Why do many boys and girls leave school intellectually devitalised?
- How does Mr. Benson characterise the aims of Masters of public schools?
- How may we characterise the minds of children?
- Show the practical working of this view.
- Distinguish between knowledge and information.
- In what ways will the child show power in dealing with knowledge?
- To what do stereotyped phrases and mangled notes in children's work point?
- Work out an analogy between knowledge and food.
- Why may we call 'mark-hunger' a debauchery of mind?
- Why should not epitomes and compilations be allowed for children's use?
- What are the advantages of working through a considerable book?
SUGGESTIONS TOWARDS A CURRICULUM Part II-School-books
- Who must, in the end, decide upon the right school-books?
- What are the relative places of lecture and book?
- Show the danger of elaborate appliances.
- Upon what principle should studies be co-ordinated?
- What results of education should we look for in a young person leaving school?
- Show that the worth of education by things is now fully recognised.
- What habit should we look for as a chief acquirement of school-life?
- Give a rough classification of the subjects in which knowledge is due to children.
- Show the importance of the Bible as a means of education.
- What knowledge of history should boys and girls of twelve to fourteen have?
- What mistake is commonly made in teaching this subject?
- What knowledge of languages should they have?
- What should we aim at in the early teaching of science?
- What least amount of time in the open is a sine quâ non of a living education?
- What is the use of books in nature-teaching?
- Name a few useful books.
- What do you understand by 'picture-talks'?
SUGGESTIONS TOWARDS A CURRICULUM Part III––The Love of Knowledge
- Why does the use of books make for short hours?
- What is the evil of a utilitarian education?
- Distinguish between relations and interests.
- Show that the tendency of present-day education is to depreciate knowledge.
- Enumerate some causes of the failure of our efforts at intellectual education.
- Show the danger, which besets teachers, of pursuing intellectual futilities.
- By what test may we distinguish a fad from an educational method?
- Our end is to produce an educated child. How is he to be recognised?
- Children delight in school for many reasons. Which of these is the only abiding motive?
- What change in our educational methods should secure the children's educational Magna Carta?
1See note at the end of the volume.